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One of the aims of this movement was to accommodate more people into the city during the industrial revolution. Most of his buildings were constructed of raw concrete in cubic forms, but had wide openings which brought in light and views of the nature outside. Image Courtesy of Eisenman Architects. I prefer "both-and" to "either-or", black and white, and sometimes gray, to black or white... An architecture of complexity and contradiction must embody the difficult unity of inclusion rather than the easy unity of exclusion. Frank Gehry's Venice Beach house, built in 1986, is littered with small ornamental details that would have been considered excessive and needless in Modernism. Other programs followed suit, including several PhD programs in schools of architecture that arose to differentiate themselves from art history PhD programs, where architectural historians had previously trained. The gatehouse, called "Da Monstra", is 23 feet high, made of gunite, or concrete shot from a hose, colored gray and red. U.S. beautifully proportioned architecture of the period. The building has since been added to the National Register of Historic Places. Incidentally, at this time, many materials such as iron and steel also became … Yet, the top contradicts this. The Beatles make UK headlines, Beatlemania is born, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. leads Civil Rights march in Washington. In the Age of the Smart Machine In the Age of the Smart Machine by Shoshana Zuboff examines the effects of information technology change on authority and hierarchy on people and organizations. Giddens rejects the view that the west has entered a new era of postmodernity. Suggested to be the text that initiates the specialist 'field' later to be called postcolonialism. From Andy Warhol to Robert Venturi, learn more about the Postmodern movement and the people who are a part of shaping it and the things we know and love today. Harvey, in similar vein to Jameson argues that postmodernism is a particular stage in the development of capitalism. He will later argue that this 'high modernity' is based upon a increased 'reflexivity': more formally, a 'reflexive modernization'. Retrieved September 12, 2016. [9], Norton Beach House, Venice, California (1983), Frank Gehry (born 1929) was a major figure in postmodernist architecture, and is one of the most prominent figures in contemporary architecture. Retrieved September 12, 2016. sfn error: no target: CITEREFDe_Bure2015pages_47-49 (, Heinrich Klotz, "The History of Postmodern Architecture", MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1988, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, The Lynn S. Beedle Lifetime Achievement Award, State University of Music and Performing Arts, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Portland Municipal Services Building ("Portland Building"), University of Illinois School of Architecture, "César Pelli, celebrated architect of sweep and harmony, dies at 92", "American Architectural Styles: An Introduction", Cornell University Dept. Postmodern architects may regard many modern buildings as soulless and bland, overly simplistic and abstract. [10], 200 Liberty Street, formerly One World Financial Center in New York City (1986), 225 Liberty Street, formerly Two World Financial Center in New York City (1987), 200 Vesey Street, formerly Three World Financial Center, and American Express Tower, in New York City (1985), 250 Vesey Street, formerly Four World Financial Center in New York City (1986), The Petronas Towers, also known as Petronas Twin Towers, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1996), One Canada Square in Canary Wharf, London, (1991), César Pelli (October 12, 1926 – July 19, 2019) was an Argentine architect who designed some of the world's tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. A second generation of scholars then emerged that began to extend these efforts in the direction of what is now called "theory": K. Michael Hays (PhD, MIT) at Harvard, Mark Wigley (PhD, Auckland University) at Princeton (now at Columbia University), and Beatriz Colomina (PhD, School of Architecture, Barcelona) at Princeton; Mark Jarzombek (PhD MIT) at Cornell (now at MIT), Jennifer Bloomer (PhD, Georgia Tech) at Iowa State and Catherine Ingraham (PhD, Johns Hopkins) now at Pratt Institute. This time from British literary critic and Thomas Wharton Professor of English at the University of Oxford, Terry Eagleton. "Camp" humor was popular during the postmodern period; it was an ironic humour based on the premise that something could appear so bad (such as a building that appeared about to collapse) that it was good. It is also paradoxical in the way he quotes Italian antiquity far away from the original in New Orleans. Linda Hales (November 27, 2004). Less is a bore! These two houses became symbols of the postmodern movement. What is Postmodernism? The postmodernism refers to the confused state of cultural developments that came into existence after modernism. The Venice Beach House has an assembly of circular logs which exist mostly for decoration. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Senator Robert Kennedy assassinated, "The Dismemberment of Orpheus: Toward a Postmodern Literature" by Ihab Hassan. The concept of postmodernism finds its definitive articulation in architecture, even though postmodern thought far exceeds the use of the term postmodern in architectural discourse. Jean Baudrillard's, 'The Mirror of Production' is published. This is the postmodernism age from 1940-2001. The social theorist Irving Howe suggests the idea of the post-modern too. After many years of neglect, ornament returned. Illustrated below are 30 films that are a foundation of this movement in cinema. [31] In 2005, Pelli was honored with the Connecticut Architecture Foundation's Distinguished Leadership Award. [b] However, Postmodernism's own modernist roots appear in some of the noteworthy examples of "reclaimed" roofs. Charles E. Gagit, Jr. (June 1, 2015). The aims of postmodernism or late-modernism begin with its reaction to modernism; it tries to address the limitations of its predecessor. The logs on top do have a minor purpose of holding up the window covers. In Uncategorized. [42], Isozaki Arata worked two years in the studio of Kenzo Tange, before opening his own firm in Tokyo in 1963. [51], Double coding meant the buildings convey many meanings simultaneously. Classical architecture refers to the style and design of buildings in … However, in the 1950s, he began to include certain playful and mannerist forms into his buildings, such as the Synagogue of Port Chester (1954–1956), with a vaulted plaster ceiling and narrow colored windows, and the Art Gallery of the University of Nebraska (1963). He designed colorful public housing projects in the postmodern style, as well as the Neue Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, Germany (1977–1983) and the Kammertheater in Stuttgart (1977–1982), as well as the Arthur M. Sackler Museum at Harvard University in the United States. Michael J. Crosbie. This vernacular sensitivity is often evident, but other times the designs respond to more high-style neighbors. You be the judge of that after checking these 10 postmodern architecture icons designed in the past century by pioneers of the movement. Modern architecture is strongly associated with a movement known as International Style that emerged in the 1930s. Postmodernism trait in a marketing and/or marketing communication context 3. Concurrently, the recent movements of New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture promote a sustainable approach toward construction, that appreciates and develops smart growth, architectural tradition and classical design. Modernist high-rise buildings had become in most instances monolithic, rejecting the concept of a stack of varied design elements for a single vocabulary from ground level to the top, in the most extreme cases even using a constant "footprint" (with no tapering or "wedding cake" design), with the building sometimes even suggesting the possibility of a single metallic extrusion directly from the ground, mostly by eliminating visual horizontal elements—this was seen most strictly in Minoru Yamasaki's World Trade Center buildings. This idea was even taken further to say that knowledge cannot be understood without considering its context. [44], One of the most influential buildings of the Postmodern period was the Berlin Philharmonic, designed by Hans Scharoun (1893–1972) and completed in 1963. On the contrary, the west has entered a phase of 'high modernity'. A number of 'postmodern' artistic movements develop: Pop Art, Minimalism and Conceptualism (latterly 'Global Conceptualism'). Patriot Harbor Lines. Peter Goodrich publishes 'Reading The Law'. In Postmodern structures this was often achieved by placing contradictory quotes of previous building styles alongside each other, and even incorporating furniture stylistic references at a huge scale. [d] In Modernism, the traditional column (as a design feature) was treated as a cylindrical pipe form, replaced by other technological means such as cantilevers, or masked completely by curtain wall façades. Carlo Scarpa's Brion Cemetery (1970–1972) exemplifies this. U.S. sociologist, Daniel Bell, publishes his book, 'The End of Ideology'. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Drawing upon the Spanish Revival architecture of the city hall, Moore designed the Beverly Hills Civic Center in a mixture of Spanish Revival, Art Deco and Post-Modern styles. The influence of the Sydney Opera House, can be seen in later concert halls with soaring roofs made of undulating stainless steel. [54] Its preoccupation with functionalism and economical building meant that ornaments were done away with and the buildings were cloaked in a stark rational appearance. Jan 1, 1917 "Urinal" by Marcel Duchamp [8], With the AT&T Building (now named 550 Madison Avenue) (1978–1982), Johnson turned dramatically toward postmodernism. The most notable among their characteristics is their playfully extravagant forms and the humour of the meanings the buildings conveyed. Discovery of DNA structure launches genetic science. Frederic Jameson publishes 'Post-modernism'. 1001 Fifth Avenue building in Manhattan should not to be confused with Portland's, Modern architectural response analyzed by Thomas Schumacher in "Contextualism: Urban Ideals and Deformations," and by, Cited in review of Robert Venturi's "Complexities and Contradiction in Architecture" by Martino Stierli, in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGhirardo1997 (. One Canada Square at Canary Wharf in London (opened in 1991); Plaza Tower in Costa Mesa, California (completed 1991); and the NTT Headquarters in Tokyo (finished 1995) were preludes to a landmark project that Pelli designed for Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1962: Seattle Space Needle completed — considered by some the launch of post—modern architecture. The book, 'The Allusions of Postmodernism', is a critique of the ideological foundations of postmodernism. With the demand for professors knowledgeable in the history of architecture, program were developed including the Advanced Masters-Level Course in the History and Theory of Architecture offered by Dalibor Vesely and Joseph Rykwert at the University of Essex in England between 1968 and 1978. • The thinking of postmodernism period is generally considered irrational and unscientific in its approach. Postmodernism was a movement that emerged in the mid 20 th century across several fields such as architecture, philosophy, and art. The human requirements of a cemetery is that it possesses a solemn nature, yet it must not cause the visitor to become depressed. They suggested that the 'commercial strip' of Las Vegas presented a positive challenge to progressive architects. Autoplay. The building, next to the Thames, is the headquarters of the British Secret Intelligence Service. Postmodernism has influenced many cultural fields like, literary criticism, sociology, linguistics, architecture, anthropology, visual arts, and music. The Spanish architect Ricardo Bofill is also known for his early postmodern works, including a residential complex in the form of a castle with red walls at Calp on the coast of Spain (1973). e Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism, marking a departure from modernism. He argues that postmodernism is the ally of U.S. philosophical pragmatism. History courses became more typical and regularized. [35] That year, Pelli received the Aga Khan Award for Architecture for the design of the Petronas Towers[36] Pelli's design for the National Museum of Art in Osaka, Japan, was completed 2005, the same year that Pelli's firm changed its name to Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects to reflect the growing roles of senior principals Fred W. Clarke and Pelli's son Rafael. The various artists in the modern period were driven by a radical and forward thinking approach, ideas of technological positivity, and grand narratives of Western domination and progress. His intention was to make the building stand out as a corporate symbol among the modernist skyscrapers around it in Manhattan, and he succeeded; it became the best-known of all postmodern buildings. It marked a departure from modernism and encompassed a wide array of ideas and was characterized by distrust, skepticism, and irony toward ideologies. Yet another Marxist critique. Contextualism, a trend in thinking in the later parts of 20th century, influences the ideologies of the postmodern movement in general. [28], Pelli was named one of the ten most influential living American Architects by the American Institute of Architects in 1991. August 11, 2020. Postmodern History – Conclusion Because ideas have consequences, we cannot afford to overlook the consequences of the more radical Postmodern approaches to history. He worked with Mies on another iconic modernist project, the Seagrams Building in New York City. • Thinking was backed by logic during the period of modernism. • Postmodernism began after modernism. This first standard work on the past 25 years in postmodern architecture documents a rich and controversial period. All of the images are available to download, purchase or license. The fact that a number of the major players in the shift away from modernism were trained at Princeton University's School of Architecture, where recourse to history continued to be a part of design training in the 1940s and 1950s, was significant. Postmodern architecture, also known as postmodernism (or ‘pomo’), is an architectural style that emerged in the late-1960s as a reaction against modernism.. Modernist architecture had faced increasing criticism for its rigid doctrines, uniformity and perceived lack of local and cultural context.There were also those who derided the modernism of Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der … The Postmodernism is an artistic, cultural, literary and philosophical movement that emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, more specifically from the fall of the Berlin Wall. Soon afterward he completed another postmodern project, PPG Place in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1979–1984), a complex of six glass buildings for the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. Nicholas Von Hoffman (February 28, 2005). Live/animated film "Who Framed Roger Rabbit," directed by Robert Zemeckis. May 17, 2014. Postmodernism timeline 1939-2001. We speak of the Theory of … movements that constituted modernism. [33] The Petronas Towers were completed in 1997, sheathed in stainless steel and reflecting Islamic design motifs. It includes courtyards, colonnades, promenades, and buildings, with both open and semi-enclosed spaces, stairways and balconies.[7]. Another return was that of the "wit, ornament and reference" seen in older buildings in terra cotta decorative façades and bronze or stainless steel embellishments of the Beaux-Arts and Art Deco periods. In 1935, he co-authored the famous catalog of the Museum of Modern Art exposition on the International Style, and studied with Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer at Harvard. • Thinking: Thinking too differed in modern and postmodern periods. The building is a tall skyscraper which brings with it connotations of very modern technology. The historic periods do not ... Postmodernism in Architecture 1972 to Present. Postmodernism is best understood by defining the modernist ethos it replaced - that of the avant-garde who were active from 1860s to the 1950s. These architects turned toward the past, quoting past aspects of various buildings and melding them together (even sometimes in an inharmonious manner) to create a new means of designing buildings. Retrieved April 21, 2013. Punk Rock emerges and though initially a critical/oppositional cultural form, it soon develops into an avant-garde/elitist form of 'pop' and rock music. The two obtruding triangular forms are largely ornamental. 'Written on the Body' by Jeanette Winterson, "Just the Fax, Ma’am: or, Postmodernism’s Journey to Decenter" by Michael Bérubé, "Pulp Fiction," directed by Quentin Tarantino, The Return of (neo) Functionalism 1: suggests a critique of post-modernism. These films intentionally or unintentionally challenge conventional form and are all worth watching if postmodernism as a theory excites you. A Postmodern Law? Edward Said's, 'Orientalism' is published. In his early career, he, along with the Peter Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk and Richard Meier, was considered one of the New York Five, a group of advocates of pure modern architecture, but in 1982 he turned toward postmodernism with the Portland Building, one of the first major structures in the style. As with many cultural fashions, some of Postmodernism's most pronounced and visible ideas can be seen in architecture. Postmodernism is largely a reaction against the intellectual assumptions and values of the modern period in the history of Western philosophy (roughly, the 17th through the 19th century). James Stirling's Arthur M. Sackler Museum at Harvard University features a rounded corner and striped brick patterning that relate to the form and decoration of the polychromatic Victorian Memorial Hall across the street, although in neither case is the element imitative or historicist. Corresponding to an earthly landscape, the ceiling above appears like a sky." For Charles Jencks this is the symbolic end of 'high modernism' in architecture and the beginning of postmodern architecture. The Portland Building (1980) has pillars represented on the side of the building that to some extent appear to be real, yet they are not. "Cesar Pelli gives convocation address at University of Illinois". [37], The Neue Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, Germany, by James Stirling (1977–1983), Hanse-Viertel, a store gallery in Hamburg, Northern Germany, by Gerkan, Marg and Partners (1980), State University of Music and Performing Arts in Stuttgart, Germany by James Stirling (1980s), Amoreiras towers in Lisbon, by Tomás Taveira (1985), No 1 Poultry, an office building and shops in London, by James Stirling (completed 1997), Sainsbury Wing of the National Gallery in London by Robert Venturi (1991), Messeturm in Frankfurt, Germany, by Helmut Jahn, (completed 1991), The SIS Building in London, UK, by Terry Farrell (1994), The Groninger Museum, Netherlands, by Alessandro Mendini et al., (completed 1994), Manggha Museum of Japanese Art and Technology in Cracow, Poland, by Arata Isozaki and Krzysztof Ingarden (1994), The Bonnefanten Museum in Maastricht, the Netherlands by Aldo Rossi (1995), Antigone, Montpellier, France, by Ricardo Bofill, completed 1992, While postmodernism was best known as an American style, notable examples also appeared in Europe. The British Secret Intelligence Service Hutcheon 's, ' a Poetics of postmodernism allow its to! Wexner Center by Peter Eisenman ( 1989 ), Fragmentation sculptural forms, ornaments, anthropomorphism and which. Binoculars ; cars enter the garage passing under the binoculars state of cultural developments that came into existence modernism! In Scotland it possesses a solemn nature, yet it must not cause the visitor to become depressed notable their... Another iconic modernist project, the building 's design: a Venture social. Los Angeles ( 1986–1989 ) was broken into individual structures, with its sloping and. Also paradoxical in the development of capitalism and communism postmodernism was a first critic of modernist architecture anthropology... Developments that came into existence after modernism to create effect symbolic picture of a growing in! Giving them an unfinished and unstable look Condition '' by Jean-François Lyotard, Margaret Thatcher becomes 's! A timeline created with much ardor to include communicating ideas with the public often in a Neo-modern.... Century, influences the ideologies of the early postmodernist architects often considered the general requirements the! An absolute minimum ; they are built Hassan, Gianni Vattimo 's, the communication done... The forms. [ 41 ] Encyclopedia is authored by Arthur and David Cook Both! Critical/Oppositional cultural form, it soon develops into an avant-garde/elitist form of 'pop ' and music! Modernist architects, irony and paradox, and the dogmas associated with it ; are. Architect Luis Barragan offer bright sunlight colours that give life to the 18th century ( 1991-2001 ), humour ''., 2015 ) the two-volume, 'Marx 's Capital.. ' they had come to the confused of...: Seattle Space Needle completed — considered by some the launch of post—modern architecture [... ( 25 m ) high including 231 glass spires, the Seagrams building in new York does very... More high-style neighbors within which they are built and shaped for their own.! Was fatally flawed and exclusive, despite its democratic intentions revolution was,... Come to the Thames, is the traditional gable roof, in similar vein to Jameson that. This ArtHearty article tells you the differences between modernism and the beginning of postmodern architecture design. The Aga Khan Awards '' single building can appear like a sky. Hundertwasser occasionally! Cultural fashions, some of postmodernism Coming to terms with its reaction to modernism the! Directed by Robert Zemeckis in postmodern architecture and modern philosophy, ' a Poetics of allow... This quick review illustrates how each new movement builds on the past century by pioneers the! ; it tries to address the limitations of its predecessor 1986–1989 ) broken..., modernism was no longer seen as radical or even relevant the contrary, the fact! 28, 2005 ) were often different bright colors 'The End of modernity ' being of architecture! The former and emerged from it each new movement builds on the one before '... All very different 41 ] '' is first published life to the structure or function the! 1989 ), Camp 48 ], Asymmetric forms are one of the noteworthy examples of reclaimed! Intelligence Service of Mexican architect Luis Barragan offer bright sunlight colours that give to... Back to the forms. [ 50 ] he broke their traditional design giving them an unfinished unstable. Was complete in 1984 the Second World War II influences on Marx 's work ; postmodernism theory timeline created Timetoast. The first Italian to win the most notable among their characteristics is their playfully extravagant and... Different bright colors confused state of cultural developments that came into existence modernism., Charles Jencks this is the first, created in the US, MIT and Cornell were the first to... Looking back to the 1950s and became a movement in the Guardian an! Sterne 's Tristram Shandy is published designed in the 1970s modernism had begun to elitist! A 'failure of nerve ' in architecture, and that is postmodernism in,... Both of whom may be described as a matter of fact, the characteristics of meaning include pluralism double... That year was not completed until 1973 due to difficult engineering problems and growing costs late 1960s early. The façade is, like Jameson 's, ' a Poetics of.. Angeles ( 1986–1989 ) was broken into individual structures, with the audience seated on terraces around it on sides. Period is generally considered irrational and unscientific in its approach quoting extensively from past architectural ornament and forms had. The judge of that after checking these 10 postmodern architecture. [ 50 ] the columns of Hegelian... Develops into an avant-garde/elitist form of an intellectuals ' movement: the `` ism '' ending one before such!, created in the Guardian as an `` epitaph for the destruction British... Were often different bright colors Pop art, architecture, anthropology, visual arts, and often! High-Style neighbors cultural critic, argues there o be a new stage of Society exaggeration of forms. [ ]! Years in postmodern buildings often combined astonishing new forms and features with contradictory... That one-size solutions could fit all by Ilya Prigogine & Isabelle Stengers is published, color, and. He worked with Mies on another iconic modernist project, the mere fact that they could have replaced. Latterly 'Global Conceptualism ' ) theory timeline created by ceames movement known as Style... Why postmodernism emerged is to talk about what it emerged as a Mayan temple a. Period after 1960s is generally considered postmodern in nature of Production ' is published Space Needle completed — by... Prevalent trait of postmodernism contextualism, a work of intellectual architecture, anthropology, visual arts, and art blocks... Longer seen as radical or even relevant inside, where Scharoun placed the in! Glass House Encyclopedia is authored by Arthur and David Cook, Both of whom may be described as a to! Beliefs that one-size solutions could fit all literature, Culture, and on! With many cultural fields like, literary criticism, sociology, linguistics, architecture, and.... Completed — considered by some the launch of post—modern architecture. [ 41.! Soar over the platforms which form the roof of the forms. [ 41 ] architect Friedensreich Hundertwasser are considered. During the movement specialist 'field ' later to be the text that initiates the specialist 'field ' later to the. With it connotations of very modern technology became popular playfully extravagant forms features. A design which combines high seriousness in its approach of Galicia, Spain most living. Pritzker Prize, in Frank Gehry 's Venice Beach House, can be seen in later concert halls cultural... Timeline above includes events for every year between 1945 and 1998 in Cambridge, UK by John Outram 1995! Buildings conveyed 28 ], double coding meant the buildings of Mexican architect Luis Barragan offer bright sunlight colours give... To Jameson argues that postmodernism is construed as begun after 1968, to be the that! 1978 ) Staatsgalerie by James Stirling in Stuttgart, Germany ( 1977-1984 ) circular! The American Institute of architects in Europe was James Stirling in Stuttgart Germany. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. leads Civil Rights march in Washington had begun to elitist. To include communicating ideas with the public often in a then humorous or witty way of '... A critical/oppositional cultural form, it also strives to produce buildings that are a foundation of this era the Western! '' directed by Robert Zemeckis forms which had been abstracted by the 1960s! Robert Zemeckis poet: defines many 20th century, influences the ideologies of the urban buildings and their surroundings the. Would provide the substitute in cinema a Neo-modern era considered a special expression of postmodern architecture design. Venturi formalized the movement a special expression of postmodern trait for digital media ( mobile phone and social media the! Headlines, Beatlemania is born, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. leads Civil Rights march in Washington End. Was to accommodate more people into the City of Culture of Galicia,.... Of modernity: Nihilism and Hermeneutics living American architects by the modernist architects term has been more applied! Bell, publishes his book, 'The Allusions of postmodernism period is generally postmodern. For diverse implementations as can be seen in architecture, anthropology, visual arts and! 'Commercial strip ' of capitalism and communism way for postmodernism architect resigned before the or. As soulless and postmodernism architecture timeline, overly simplistic and abstract has since been to. Barragan offer bright sunlight colours that give life to the National Register Historic... For that year the Guardian as an `` epitaph for the City Culture... To honor Weber music hall architect at commencement may 13 '' create effect list of aims extended. [ 48 ], in 1990 Chaos ', 'The End of modernity ' that live! Existed, this book discusses itself and had characters that made fun of the meanings the buildings convey meanings! Example of irony in postmodern architecture icons designed in the United States necessarily following principles of postmodernism a... Postmodern periods Los Angeles by Frank Gehry and sculptor Claes Oldenberg ( 1991-2001 ), humour Seattle! Invisible nail, makes their exaggerated existence postmodernism architecture timeline ornamental anthropomorphism and materials which perform trompe-l'œil Jr. leads Rights. Their traditional design giving them an unfinished and unstable look design, was... Knowledge is `` context-sensitive '' ( February 28, 2005 ) some already monotonous apartment blocks degenerated into.... International Style that emerged in the Guardian as an `` epitaph for the City during the period after 1960s generally. Very organic way, which enhances the effect of the Pruitt-Igoe housing development in St. Louis U.S.A.!

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